In the last time, anti-pollution regulations have been rapidly evolving. All these measures establish technological standards related to vehicle emissions and the quality of their fuels. This is intended to limit emissions of greenhouse gases and polluting gases coming from road transport.
The European Union obliges to comply with the EC regulation 443/2009 to implement the anual mandatory targets for CO2 emissions, in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from transport.
Regarding air pollutants, in 1992, the European Union established the ¨Euro¨emission standards by which new vehicles must fulfill the requirements that limit gases potentially dangerous to health, such us CO (carbon monoxide), HC (hydrocarbons), NOX (nitrogen oxides) and PM (solid particles or aerosols).The first standard, Euro 1, has been replaced (with increasingly stringent limits) by Euro 2 to Euro 6 standards. Manufacturers working in Europe must kik out their vehicles or engines with friendly emission components, always respecting the limits set by these regulations.
What are Euro 6 and Euro VI?
The first thing to realise is that the Euro standards are divided into two main groups: Euro VI (in Roman numerals) and Euro 6 (in Arabic numerals).
Euro 6 standard establishes the requirements for the homologation of cars and light commercial vehicles with a reference mass not exceeding 2,610 kg. These include replacement parts and pollution control devices. This regulation came into force in September 2015.
Euro VI standard sets the regulation for the approval of motor vehicles with a reference mass of more than 2,610 kg. (trucks, buses and coaches), engines, and spare parts for heavy vehicles. Likewise, it determines the requirements regarding pollution control devices, on-board diagnostic systems (OBD) and the measurement of fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. This regulation has been in force since September 2014.
Euro standards are not static, they are evolving towards higher demands and, therefore, manufacturers must adapt the engines to them. Because of that, the letters system came into force, designating them as b, c or d.
Emissions from heavy-duty vehicles (Euro VI): certification rules
This regulation establishes two procedures for the certification of the vehicle in relation to its emissions.
EC type-approval requirements
This certification shows that the manufacturer has evaluated the product and obey the requirements of the European Union. It is mandatory for engines that, even manufactured outside the European Union, are going to be marketed in the European Member States. The procedure certifies that the vehicle satysfies the corresponding administrative provisions and technical requirements, in accordance with the Emissions Regulations for Heavy Vehicles.
In-Service Conformity Test (ISC)
Manufacturers must adopt the established measures that guarantee the effective limitation of exhaust gas emissions, during the useful life of the vehicle and under normal conditions of use. To get it, any engine´s family must carry out proper test on vehicles on the road, under normal driving and loading conditions, repeating them periodically for a while.
What does the Euro VI D standard provide?
The Euro VI Step D standard entered into force on September 1, 2018 and it is applicable from September 1, 2019.
Its goal is to complement the testing requirements, adopting new needs for Portable Emission Eeasurement Systems (PEMS), to continue improving the reduction of polluting emissions.
Nowadays, the polluting substances that have to be muasured are: CO (carbon monoxide), HC (hydrocarbons), NOx (nitrogen oxides) and PM (particulate matter); as the most importants.
The BeGas 100% Autogas/LPG liquid injection engines family has been approved, exceeding by far the requirements of the Euro VI D standard. These engines are already available for trucks and city buses in powers of 250, 280 and 310 hp.
BeGas AVG engines have reached to reduce radically polluting emissions. These successes in relation to the limits imposed by the Euro VI Step D standard are:
- 51% in CO levels;
- 22% in PN levels;
- 57% in NOx levels;
- 29% in PM10 levels;
- 87% in HC levels.